The first has been done for you. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Reflex arc: The path taken by the nerve impulses in a reflex is called a reflex arc. PLAY. There are different types of neurones that work together in a reflex action. The reflex action which we have shown in Figure 30 is actually a spinal reflex. Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication CHAPTER SEVEN, TABLE 7-2 Questions to Be Asked About Any Homeostatic Reflex. A stimulus acts upon a receptor to produce a signal that is relayed to an integrating center. These neurons carry... 3. [ 4 marks]. Match the following: A) Olfactory B) Accessory C) Abducens D) Vagus E) Vestibulocochlear 12) Rootlets arise on the spinal cord, enter the skull through the foramen magnum and exit the skull through the jugular foramen. • … The pathway along which this information travels is known as the efferent pathway (the general term "efferent" means "to carry away from," in this case, away from the integrating center). A reflex arc is a neural pathway involved in a reflex. The complete sequence is called a reflex arc. Figure 3. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\): Withdrawal Reflex Arc. Part A Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify the parts of a monosynaptic reflex arc. When the signal reaches the spinal cord, a signal is immediately sent back along motor nerves to the original site of the pain, triggering the muscles to contract without involving the brain. On the picture below, the stimulus is a drawing-pin sticking in the finger. sensory neurons and motor neurons are on the same side. A reflex arc describes the pathway of an electrical impulse in response to a stimulus. First Part of a Reflex Arc: Sensor Thus, in the thermoregulation example, the integrating center in the brain not only sends signals by way of nerve fibers, as shown in Figure 7-4, but also causes the release of a hormone that travels via the blood to many cells, where it produces an increase in the amount of heat produced by these cells. The pathway traveled by the signal between the receptor and the integrating center is known as the afferent pathway (the general term "afferent" means "to carry to," in this case, to the integrating center). When the kneecap is struck, the stimulus causes an impulse to be propagated along an afferent fiber toward the spinal cord in the central nervous system. Relay neurones are found in the spinal cord, connecting sensosy neurones to motor neurones. Reflex arc consist of 1)Receptor or sensory organ, 2)Sensory neurine, 3)Reflex centre (brain or spinal cord), 4)Motor neurone and 5)Effector (muscle or gland). Figures 3 and 4 show the complexity of responses to hand-compression stimulus. Sometimes the signal evokes a reflex response (see figure Reflex Arc: A No-Brainer). These electric signals are conducted by the nerve fibers—the afferent pathway—to a specific part of the brain—the integrating center for temperature regulation. 1. 4. Ipsilateral. ### What you need to know Eliciting the deep tendon reflexes is a vital component of medical assessments in general practice (where 9% of medical problems are believed to be neurological in origin1) and in hospital (where 10-20% of admissions have a primary neurological problem2). 9) Effector. They are called spinal reflexes. Figure 7. Although in some reflexes we are aware of the stimulus and/or the response, many reflexes regulating the internal environment occur without any conscious awareness. A receptor detects the environmental change; we referred to the receptor as a "detector" earlier. multiple synapses involving one or more interneurons between sensory and motor neurons. 4) Which neuron is never myelinated? Using Figure 13.2, identify the following components of the reflex arc: 7) Integration center. The dashed arrow and the © indicate the negative-feedback nature of the reflex. The third component of a reflex arc is a synapse in the CNS. stimulus → receptor → sensory neurone → relay neurone → motor neurone → effector → response The nerve pathway followed by a reflex action is called a reflex arc. Where is the integrating center to which these receptors send information and from which information is sent out to the effectors, and what is the nature of these afferent and efferent pathways? The smallest contractile unit within skeletal muscle would correspond to the distance between which two points in the figure? On the picture below, the stimulus is a drawing-pin sticking in the finger. They may be abolished by disease of the lower motor neurone or sensory neurones in the reflex arc, and may be modified by central damage, such as in hyper-reflexic upper motor neurone lesions. Most Effective Yeast Infection Home Remedies, How To Treat Erectile Dysfunction Naturally, Research Study Identifies Weight Loss Program That Works, Strategies for boosting mental performance, Non-Surgical Alternative to Facial Liposuction, An alternative approach to perioral rhytides. Babkin reflex and other responses to hand compression stimulus. The pathway mediating a reflex is known as the reflex arc, and its components are shown in Figure 7-3. The reflex arc consists of 5 components: 1. sensory receptor. Q2. Reflex: automatically and rapidly integrating and coordinating stimuli with responses, a. i) Name the type of nerve cell shown in the figure [1 mark], Use of microorganisms and fermenter to manufacture enzymes, Use of microorganisms to manufacture antibiotic penicillin, Main nutrients: carbohydrates, fats and proteins, Food test 2 - Benedict's test for Reducing Sugars, Food test 3 - Emulsion (ethanol) test for Fats, Other Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals, Fiber and Water, Using microorganism in making yoghurt and single cell protein, Food additives - uses, benefits and health hazards, Use of modern technology for increasing food production, Problems of world food supplies and the causes of famine, Absorption – function of the small intestine and significance of villi, Photosynthesis investigations - Principles and Starch test, Effect of Light intensity on the rate of Photosynthesis, Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis, Effect of Carbon Dioxide on the Rate of Photosynthesis, Optimum conditions for photosynthesis in Green house, Plant's mineral requirements and fertilisers, Distribution of Xylem and Phloem in roots, stems and leaves, Passage of water through root, stem and leaf, Transpiration in plants and factors affecting tranpiration rate, Adaptations of the leaf, stem and root to different environments, Translocation of applied chemicals throughout the plant, Transport of materials from sources to sinks at different seasons, Effect of exercise on heartbeat and causes of a coronary heart disease, Arteries, veins and capillaries - structure and functions, Immune system - antibody, tissue rejection, ii) For the pupil reflex , identify each of the parts of the sequence by copying and completing the table below. We term such reflexes learned, or acquired. What tissue is the effector? Figure 7 shows the simplest reflex arc, involving only three neurons. 2. Information processing involves complex neural pathways that require a certain amount of time between recognition of a stimulus and the resulting response. This phenomenon of negative feedback is emphasized by the minus sign in the dashed feedback loop. To the driver these motions are, in large part, automatic, stereotyped, and unpremeditated, but they occur only because a great deal of conscious effort was spent learning them. Thus far we have described the reflex arc as the sequence of events linking a stimulus to a response. This is shown here in response to a pin in the paw of an animal, but it is equally adaptable to any situation and animal (including humans). This hormone therefore also serves as an efferent pathway in thermoregulatory reflexes. Question: U Vew Sheet Questions Using Mastering A&p REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE Human Reflex Physiology Name Lab Time/Date The Reflex Arc 1. Moreover, depending on the specific nature of the reflex, the integrating center may reside either in the nervous system or in an endocrine gland. 21: Human Reflex Physiology Art-labeling Activity: Figure 21.2a Label the parts of a monosynaptic reflex arc. They generate electric signals in the nerve cells at a rate determined by the temperature. select different colors for each of the following structures and use The response is the withdrawal of the arm due to contraction of the biceps. To illustrate the components of a negativefeedback homeostatic reflex arc, let us use Figure 7-4 to apply these terms to thermoregulation. Nerve impulse of a stimulus is sensed by two or more neurons in the skin of the fingers. In nervous system physiology, the definition of a reflex is a _____. 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